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Archive for the ‘Lab Equipment’ Category

10 MORE Fun Facts about Labware

Our ‘10 Fun Facts about Labware” blog post was actually pretty popular (the internet loves lists), so we thought we’d do a sequel to talk about other oddities of the labware world.  Here we go

10) Condensers are all about the surface area and Hollywood loves them – So you’ve got some gas, right? And you need to get it back to liquid state, right? Because that gas is gonna disspiate if you just let it run free, but how can you get it cool enough to turn liquid in a limited amount of space and have that liquid end up in a flask or something else? The answer is a Condenser!graham

Condensers (particularly Graham condensers) are popular in Hollywood depictions of laboratories as they have that neat swirly tubing inside another tube. Run some colored liquid through them and they look awesome!

But why all that swirly tubing? Well it turns out that you need a decent amount of cooling to turn a gas into liquid. So the curling tubing is actually trying to expose the gas in the tube to as much of the cooling liquid that fills the outer tube. That liquid (usually just water) is fed in from the top and drains out the bottom as it would otherwise get too warm to cool down that gas before it exited the tubing.

Hollywood, BTW, loves showing condensers because it is neat to watch liquid swirl through all that spiral tube, even if it would serve no purpose as shown.

9) Attachment sizes and what they mean – Every now and then you might encounter a piece of labware that has some numbers associated with it. 24/40, 19/22 , and many other sizes. So what does this mean?

3590Well this is a measurement to see if one piece of labware will attach with another. The sizes denote ground glass openings on the flask, condesner, etc and therefore should be compatible with a labware with the same kind of measurement. When these attach, the ground glass openings provide enough friction to keep them connected but not so connected that they cannot be seperated easily.

As to the actual numbers and what they mean – the first number corresponds to the diameter at the end of the ground glass zone (so 24 is 24mm) while the second number corresponds to the length of the ground glass zone (so 40 is 40mm).


8) Evaporation flasks  – So the opposite of condensation is evaporation. Naturally there are a lot of ways and reasons to evaporate liquids, the most common being to simply boil it. But sometimes you need a less…energetic way of evaporating liquids (volitiles like alcohols, for example, may not rotaryevaporatorappreciate flames). So one common method is to use a rotary evaporator:

Rotary evaporators are fairly complex systems that pretty much just speed up (and contain) what would otherwise happen to low-boiling points liquids exposed to room temperatures. You’ll sometimes see special evaporation flasks with oval shapes: these are designed to get the maximum surface area on the heat section of a evaporation system.


7) Filtration:
Sometimes you may spot a Erhlemeyer Flask with a tube sticking out of it. 5444-2This is called a filtering flask. It uses a couple of other pieces of equipment to operate: First a felxible tube is attached to the glass tube and then to a pump (powered or hand operated). A stopper with a hole is put into the top of the flask which goes to a filtering funnel known as a Buchner Funnel. Some filter paper is placed into this funnel. You then activate your pump (which means you have some hard work if a hand pump is being used). The liquid in need of filtration is then slowly added inot the top of the funne;. The drop in air pressure pulls the water through  the filter paper and funnel leavs behind any solids or other materials.


6) Volumetric Flasks:
1886If there is a ‘piece of labware most likely to be repurposed’ it is the Volumetric Flask. With its long stem and round bottom it is possible they beat out ‘small beakers turned into shot glasses’ by being turned into flower vases. But the volumetric flask actually has an important role in chemistry. If you need to make a solution of a particular Molar (a measurement of how much of a reagent is in a set quantity of solution) the best way is to use a Volumetric Flask. Measure out the quantity of reagent for the solution you are making, and add it to the measured solution in the flask. IT is as accurate as you can get and the best way to mix said solutions. The Volumetric Flask combines the accuracy of a graduated cylinder with the mixing ability of a normal flask (Such as a Ehrlenmeyer flask or round-bottom flask)

5) Separatory funnels:

This odd-looking inverse teardrop shaped piece of labware may, oddly enough, be more familiar to some readers 3218of this blog post as they are often used in beer brewing and similar hobbies.  Separatory Funnels are used when you need to seperate two liquids from each other (such as oil and water, yeast and water, etc.). The differing densities of liquids well seperate out inside the funnel (some shaking may be involved). Once sepearted the more dense liquid can be drained out the tube in the bottom, leaving the less dense liquid remaining in the flask.

4) Labware for a new generation (Class A Coding)

OK, so this is an issue for laboratories where critical measurements are required. As we mentioned in our previous chapter there is special labware known as ‘Class A’ labware. This is labware certified to extreme accuracy and even has to be certified, either by the batch or individually (which is more expensive). The problem is that labs may be required to show that their labware is certified for one reason or another. The certification, however is usually a piece of paper that gets filed away or lost, leaving the lab struggling to find the right papers and possibly contacting the manufacturer. So what solution is there? A modern one where your Smartphone can check your labware’s certification. That’s right, Class A labware’s certification will soon be bar-encoded!


Now rather than running to the file cabinet you can simply catch the barcode on your Smartphone and your certification will come right up! Couldn’t be easier!

3) Lipless and Lipped Test tubes

So test tubes come in two forms – with a lip (which helps with pouring) and lipless (which….has no real advantage). Plastic test tubes typically are lipless to reduce expense. In fact it is not certain why lipless test tubes are made except that many folks buy them for no-laboratory uses. Most of the ones we have sold a the store are repurposed – usually to hold flowers (its a thing).

2) Types of plastic labware and what they do

So we discussed plastic labware in the previous chapter. But there are actually several types of plastic that are used in labware. Polyproylene (PP), for example is economical and very hard to break. Unfortunately is it also not as transparent as glass and may be hard to read the markings. Polymethylpentene (PMP) is as clear as glass so is much easier to read. Unfortunately, it is also much more expensive than PP and may be more p50902brittle. It becomes a question of priorities.
1) Plastic Pipettes and their uses

Little plastic pippetes are another item in heavy use outside the laboratory. These little soft plastic droppers come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Some are measured, some are not. They can come sterile or not, etc.

In the lab and medical field they are used to draw small, controlled quantities of liquid. In medicine they are used to grab a sample of blood from a source (they are not used to draw blood, obviously).

Outside the lab? The limits are people’s imagination! Gold Hunters use them to draw the small flakes out of liquid known to have gold flakes.. Bakers use pipettes to both insert fillings into cupcakes and cakes (to make patterns they could not do otherwise) or even just fill them with coloful icing and stick them into the cake to make an attractive ‘bulb’ cake ornament. In addtion to icing, liquers can be used, or other flavorings. Food artisans have taken to using pipettes to ‘inject’ fruit with various flavorings as well!





New Low Speed Centrifuges from Premier

Premier has introduced two new additions to their low-speed centrifuge line, the XC-2415 and the XC2450

6058 (more…)

The New AAS T-heater Slim PCR Cycler

In Biotechnology there is a process known as PCR. PCR, or Polumerase Chain Reaction is widely performed through a series of heating cycles that pull apart, duplicate, and fuse back together the two strands of a DNA double helix, PCR creates new copies of DNA that are identical to the original.

Traditional PCR requires the material be heated to about 95C, wherupon the DNA strands seperate, or ‘denature’. The sample is then cooled a bit  so the strands will anneal to ‘primers’, which are short DNA strands designed to bond to specific sections of the DNA strand. The sample is heated slightly more (72C) and  activates an enzyme called polymerase that attaches itself to the end of the primer. The polymerase “extends” the primer’s length based on the original DNA, thus recreating the desired sequence.

During this “extension” step, the polymerase reacts with the original copy to produce a new chain of DNA, thus the name Polymerase Chain Reaction. Since this process happens for both of the original DNA strands, the amount of DNA is doubled after one PCR cycle. Over many cycles, PCR exponentially expands the amount of DNA you were started with.


Pyrex and Bomex: The glass your labware is made of.

When it comes to labware, there is only one material to use: Pyrex… no wait that’s not right, that’s a brand name. beaker

The actual answer is Borosilicate glass.

Borosilicate glass has a lot of brand names: Pyrex is the most well known (a product of Dow Corning) but as the material itself is not subject to copyright there are more than a few other names: Bomex, Pallex, and a few others. But in the end they are all Borosilicate glass, from the lowliest test tube to the fanciest distillation equipment.

Why Borosilicate glass? The answer is that borosilicate glass is very resitant to heat. Its not that it doesn’t get hot when heated, but rather when heated it does not expand like other types of glass. If another type of glass was used the expansion from heating would result in the labware shattering.

This is not to say that borosilicate glass is not immune to the effects of flame. In fact you really should not expose glass labware to direct flame if you can avoid it.  Use a hot plate, or seperate the flame from the glass with a ceramic pad.

Borosilcate glass is highly valued for its lack of expansion when heating – in fact higher-end reflecting telescopes make the mirrors out of borosilicate glass because the low expansion means the sensitive surface of the mirror will not change as the telescope goes from a warm indoors to a cold winter’s night.

So why do they make labware out of glass at all? Why not some other material? Well the main reason is visbility – when doing labwork you need to see what is happening in the glassware wether you need to see it to measure it or to observe the reaction taking place. The secondary answers are; metal won’t react well with acids, cermics need to be too thick to heat quickly, plastic doesn’t heat well, scratches, and is bad with some checmicals (not that they don’t make plastic labware).

So back to the glass – some often ask us if it matters if the glass is made of the brand Pyrex or not. the answer is: it depends, but probably not.

You see, all glass labware might be made of the same glass (branded or not) but not all glass labware is constructed the same. A 500ml beaker from a cheap brand might have thinner glass than a ‘name’ brand. Other factors that enter labware prices are: calibration (how much effort did they spend make sure the markings are accurate), labelling (do the markings stay on the glassware? not always!) design (some labware may not have a rolled top to preventing chipping or lack a pouring spout in certain beakers) all labware is a compromise of features vs. price somewhere. But whatever they do with the design, they will be using borosilicate glass.

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Benchmark Rotating Mixer

Probably one of the strangest looking pieces of equipment you might find in a laboratory is a Rotating Mixer. I mean, look at the thing, it looks like a mini Ferris Wheel!



The TrippNT 108 HPLC Column Cabinet

Analytic chemistry has a process known as High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) wherin a mixture is separated into its components for identification. The process is fairly complex and involves a pump as well as a solid-filled ‘column’ than the mixture is pumped through.

These columns are special equipment, with varying lengths and solids inside them.


These columns need a bit of care and cannot just be left on a shelf somewhere. Specialty storage is needed, especially if the lab in question does a lot of HPLC work.

Enter the TrippNT 108 HPLC Cabinet!


This cabinet can store 108 HPLC columns in individual compartments. The trays in the drawers are removable and adjustable. Each tray has an acrylic lid.:


And of course, we have a lovely video of the HPLC Cabinet ‘in action’.

The HPLC Column  Cabinet costs well under $600 and is a must for any lab that has to do frequent HPLC work. It ships assembled so no time is wasted putting it all together.

For Labs that do only occasional HPLC work or have space imitations consider the budget HPLC Column  storage cabinet.

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Walter Water Baths Get a Face-Lift

Walter Products has offered some excellent low-cost Water Baths that are good for start-up labs, Universities, and High schools. They were not precision instruments but their low prices filled a niche that many institutions found quite useful.

The only trouble is, the design wasn’t exactly inspiring:

Water Bath -3While not critically ugly, the Water Baths were a bit on the bland side. Mind you, this is usually not a major issue for the average lab-user. But on the other hand if you can get a better appearance without any major changes to costs, then why not?